Archive For The “Strange” Category

TREATMENT AND PROGNOSIS

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TREATMENT AND PROGNOSIS

The treatment of acute pancreatitis is supportive, with intravenous fluids, intake of nothing by mouth, relief of in pain with analgesics, nutritional support, and close clinical observation. In general, the mortality rate of acute pancreatitis is approximately 10%. An estimated 90% of patients recover within the first 2 weeks. Prognosis can be determined at the…

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STUDIES OF PANCREATIC STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

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STUDIES OF PANCREATIC STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

Invasive and noninvasive techniques have been developed to study pancreatic physiology, parenchyma, and duct morphology. These methods are often needed in evaluating patients with pancreatic disease. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography(ERCP) and endoscopic ultrasonography are invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that allow the study of pancreatic duct and duct morphology. The major limitation of ERCP is the…

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Other Complications

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Other Complications

Patients with Crohn’s disease can develop multiple metabolic abnormalities. They have increased absorption of oxalate that leads to kidney stones and a disrupted enterohepatic circulation with increased frequency of gallstones. Metabolic bone disease is a complication of IBD, either because of vitamin D malabsorption or as a side effect of steroid use. Other rare include…

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Pneumoconiosis

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Pneumoconiosis

The four major pneumoconiosis result from inhalation of asbestos, coal dust, silica, or beryllium. Asbestos is the most important because of the frequency of exposure and severity of disease. Disease is related to the intensity and duration of exposure as well as to the fiber type. Manifestations of asbestosis range from benign pleural effusions thickening…

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Etiology

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Etiology

The immune system has separate compartments, including the systemic compartment, represented by the peripheral blood lymphocytes, and the gastrointestinal mucosa, in which numerous intraepithelial lymphocytes and lamina propria lymphocytes are found. Patients with IBD have an abnormality in the expression and activation in the gastrointestinal mucosal compartment. The gastrointestinal system is normally in a”controlled state…

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Gastroduodenal Anatomy

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Gastroduodenal Anatomy

The stomach is a J-shaped dilation of the alimentary tract bounded proximally the lower esophageal and distally by the sphincter. stomach is divided into four regions. The cardia is a poorly defined transition from the esophagogastric junction to the fundus. The fundus projects up above the cardia and is continuous with the body pus), which…

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Clinical symptoms of Esophageal Disease

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Clinical symptoms of Esophageal Disease

Dysphagia is the sensation that food is hindered sticking in its normal passage from the mouth to the stomach. Dysphagia is divided into two distinct syndromes: that resulting from abnormalities affecting the pharynx and UES(oropharyngeal dysphagia) and that caused by any of a variety of disorders affecting the esophagus itself(esophageal dysphagia). Oropharyngeal dysphagia is usually…

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Patients with COPD have slowly progressive, irreversible airway obstruction. The course of the disease is punctuated by periodic exacerbations characterized increased dyspnea, increased sputum production, a change in character of the sputum, and occasionally respiratory failure. Exacerbations may result from bacterial respiratory infection, failure, poor compliance with prescribed therapy, or acute bronchospasm. Pulmonary emboli may…

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Alienation !

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Alienation !

For Marx, alienation is a condition occurring in pre-socialist societies where the human nature of man is made other than, alien to, what man is really capable of being. This is also the sense in which Rousseau used it, though his view was thal contemporary society had made man other, and more corrupt, than had…

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Immunosuppressant Drug Therapy

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Immunosuppressant Drug Therapy

Prophylaxis against and treatment of graft rejection are at the heart of the success of kidney transplantation. Since the 1960s, the protocols for renal transplantation have undergone remarkable evolution. All the protocols for immunosuppression aim at disruption of the lymphocyte cell cycle. Azathioprine and steroids, with or without antilymphocyte preparations, were the mainstay of clinical…

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