Archive For The “Strange” Category

Adrenal Medullary Hyperfunction

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Adrenal Medullary Hyperfunction

The adrenal medulla symthesizes the catecholamines norepinephrine, epinephrine, and do from the amino acid tyrosine. Norepinephrine, the major catecholamine produced by the adrenal medulla, has predominantly a-agonist actions, causing vasoconstriction. Epinephrine acts primarily on the B receptors, having positive inotropic and chronotropic effects on the heart, causing peripheral vasodilation, and increasing plasma glucose concentrations in…

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Adrenal Insufficiency

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Adrenal Insufficiency

Glucocorticoid insufficiency can be either primary, resulting from the destruction or dysfunction of the adrenal cortex, or secondary, resulting from ACTH hyposecrrtion. Autoimmune destruction of the adrenal glands(Addison’s disease) is the most common cause of primary adrenal insufficiency in the industrialized world, accounting for about 65% of cases. Both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid secretion are diminished…

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GROWTH HORMONE

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GROWTH HORMONE

GH is a 191-amino acid peptide with a molecular weight of 22,000 d. Secretion is stimulated by the 44-amino acid hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone(GHRH) inhibited by the h thalamic tetradecapeptide somatostatin. These hypothalamic factors bind to pituitary somatotroph cells and regulate GH secretion. binds to receptors in the liver and induces insulin-like growth factor i(IGF-1),…

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Marfan’s Syndrome

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Marfan’s Syndrome

Marfan’s syndrome, long incorrectly thought secondary to a collagen abnormality, is caused by abnormalities of the ubiquitous extracellular protein fibrillin I. This cysteine-rich, 350-kd protein forms de bonded agcreates and, with, other proteins, generates microfibrils at are abundant in the periosteum, aorta, muscles, and tendons. Microfibrils appear to form the skeleton on which elastin disposition…

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PORPHYRIA CUTANEA TARDA

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PORPHYRIA CUTANEA TARDA

Several thousand cases of porphyria cutanea tarda(PCT) have been identified, but accurate prevalence figures are not available. The affected enzyme is uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase. The major porphyrins accumulating in plasma are uroporphyrin which is behind the partial enzymatic block, and 7- carboxylate porphyrin, the first product of the enzyme’s sequential action on uroporphyrin. Uroporphyrinogen and 7-carboxylate…

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Lung Cancer

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Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is a devastating malignant disease of adults. Although the rate of leveled, the mortality rate cancers has leveled, the mortality rate for lung cancer is the highest of all the cancers. Lung cancer is the most common malignant disease in the United States. More than 170,000 new cases of lung cancer and almost…

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Natural History, Prognosis, and Treatment Low-Grade NHLs

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Natural History,  Prognosis,  and Treatment Low-Grade NHLs

The common low-grade or indolent histologies include the follicular lymphomas(small cleaved cell and mixed cell types and small lymphocytic lymphoma(the latter is identical to CLL and is discussed later, which account for about 30% and 5% of all NHLs, respectively. The low-grade follicular lymphomas are mature clonal B-cell neoplasms with an immunophenotype that is positive…

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DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION

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DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR  COAGULATION

One of the most common and potentially life-threatening causes of nonimmune peripheral platelet destruction is DIC, DIC is associated with sepsis, malignancy, advanced liver disease, and other disorders that trigger endotoxin release or cause severe tissue damage. In DIC caused by bacterial sepsis, the extrinsic pathway is activated by circulating endotoxin that induces expression of…

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ANATOMY

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ANATOMY

Regional depots of body fat, as noted earlier, differ markedly in their metabolic features and in their relation to the adverse health consequences of obesity. The form of obesity that characteristically occurs in men, android or abdominal obesity, is closely associated with metabolic complications such as hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperuricemia, and dyslipoproteinemia(syndrom X). Mutation of…

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Obesity

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Obesity

A United States government task force has set a body mass index equal to or greater than 27.3 women and 27.8 for men as ning the term over weight. These values correspond to a 20% excess over body weight. Clinicians most frequently use body weight or, preferably, the BMI to judge whether a patient is…

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