Archive For The “Strange” Category

Chronic Diarrhea

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Chronic Diarrhea

Clinicians have multiple tests at their disposal when evaluating a patient with chronic diarrhea, and proper judgment should be used in choosing the most appropriate ones. Duration of diarrhea, evidence of systemic involvement, nutritional deficiencies and previous investigations should guide the evaluation of the patient. In contrast to acute diarrhea, infectious etiology is uncommon with…

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CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

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CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

Classic symptoms of acute pancreatitis include acute abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Physical examination may reveal reduced bowel sounds secondary to ileus, jaundice resulting from gallstones abdominal tenderness, fever, or tachycardia. Acute in to the results in leakage of pancreatic enzymes into the blood stream. This condition is detected as an increase in serum amylase…

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Clinical Presentation Complications

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Clinical Presentation Complications

ARF results in signs and symptoms that reflect loss of the regulatory, excretory, and endocrine functions of the kidney. The loss of excretory ability of the kidney is ressed by a rise in the plasma of specific substances normally excreted by the kidney. The most widely monitored indices are the concentrations of BUN and creatinine…

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Patients with COPD have slowly progressive, irreversible airway obstruction. The course of the disease is punctuated by periodic exacerbations characterized increased dyspnea, increased sputum production, a change in character of the sputum, and occasionally respiratory failure. Exacerbations may result from bacterial respiratory infection, failure, poor compliance with prescribed therapy, or acute bronchospasm. Pulmonary emboli may…

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PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

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PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

A diagnostic approach to hyponatremia is outlined in list. The of hyponatremia show that it can be associated with normal, high, or low total body sodium content. In some hyponatremic disorders, the serum osmolality is elevated; thus, the intracellular wa ter content is not increased, and no risk of brain edema exists. Hyperglycemia and the…

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IMMUNE THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA

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IMMUNE THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA

In children, acute immune thrombocytopenic purpura(ITP) is often preceded by a viral infection, such as varicella. Patients with ITP present with petechial hemorrhage, mucosal bleeding, and thrombocytopenia with counts often lower than 20,000/AL. The peripheral blood smear shows large platelets and no other abnormal cells(such as blasts, which would accompany childhood leukemia); the bone marrow…

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STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION

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STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION

Allogeneic transplantation offers the only hope for long- term cure in many patients with de novo AML and relapsed ALL. overall cure rates with chemotherapy alone in patients with AML are 15% to 30%. For patients less than 60 years old, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation offers an overall long-term cure rate of 40% to 60%,…

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Clinical Evaluation of Bleeding

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Clinical Evaluation of Bleeding

The evaluation of bleeding requires a careful history physical examination, and laboratory evaluation. The patient’s history should include a description of bleeding(epistaxis, menorrhagia, hematoma formation), the circumstances under which bleeding occurred(association with trauma surgery, or dental procedures), and whether any blood products(and what kind of products) were required to staunch bleeding. The clinician should determine…

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Platelet Physiology

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Platelet Physiology

The platelet functions as the cellular-based platform for hemostasis. Platelet membrane receptors mediate primary hemostasis and allow platelets to bind directly to endothelium and subendothelium at sites of damage. Platelet adhesion causes transmembrane signaling through surface receptors to induce platelet activation and to further procoagulant function through translocation of receptors to the membrane surface receptor…

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Vascular Wall Physiology

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Vascular Wall Physiology

vascular endothelial cells(ECs) function as a barrier to contain and prevent blood from contacting the highly subendothelial contents. In addition, normal intact ECs possess strong anticoagulant functions and secrete prostacyclin, nitric oxide, ADPase, and plasminogen activator. Prostacyclin and nitric oxide have dual mechanisms to prevent thrombosis; both affect smooth muscle cells to induce vasodilation and…

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