Archive For The “News” Category

SCREENING TESTS OF HEPATOBILIARY DISEASE

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SCREENING TESTS OF HEPATOBILIARY DISEASE

Screening tests of hepatobiliary disease may be divided into two categories: (1) tests of biliary obstruction and/or cholestasis and(2) tests of hepatocellular damage, based on the mechanisms responsible for the abnormal test. However, none of the tests is specific either category, and it is the overall pattern and the relative magnitude of abnormalities in these…

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Delayed Gastric Emptying

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Delayed Gastric Emptying

Typical symptoms of delayed gastric emptying include early satiety, bloating, epigastric fullness, nausea, and vomiting. Symptoms are worsened by eating, which may lead to anorexia, weight loss, and nutritional deficiencies. A wide range of clinical disorders are associated with impaired gastric emptying. Diabetic gastroparesis is the most important of these disorders. It is typically seen…

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DIAGNOSIS

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DIAGNOSIS

The diagnosis of GERD is best made by the patient’s history. Objective tests are useful to quantify the severity of disease and to address three questions: Does reflux exist?(2) Is acid reflux responsible for the patient’s symptoms? and(3) Has reflux led to esophageal damage? Reflux may be demonstrated during a barium swallow or by radionuclide…

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Nephrolithiasis

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Nephrolithiasis

Nephrolithiasis is a common cause of morbidity in the United States. The peak incidence is in the age group of 20 to 45 years, with a predilection for men(the incidence is five times higher in men than in women). The incidence of nephrolithiasis is highet in developed countries, mainly because of high intake of animal…

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Cardiac Disease in Pregnancy

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Cardiac Disease in Pregnancy

Pregnancy is associated with dramatic changes in the cardiovascular system that may result in significant he modynamic stress to the patient with underlying heart disease. During a normal pregnancy, plasma volume increases an average of 50%, beginning in the first trimester and peaking between the 20th and 24th weeks of pregnancy. This change is accompanied…

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Amyloidosis

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Amyloidosis

Amyloidosis is a group of diseases characterized by the deposition of abnormal fibrillar proteins(amyloid) in tissues and organs throughout the body. Amyloidosis can be classified as primary, secondary, or familial depending on the type of precursor protein that forms the amyloid fibril amyloidosis is a rare systemic disease caused by the abnormal production of immunoglobulin…

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THE CARDIAC ACTION POTENTIAL

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THE CARDIAC ACTION POTENTIAL

The electrical activity of a single cardiac cell can be recorded with the aid of a microelectrode and demonstrates that the resting potential of a myocyte is-80 t 90 mv. This resting potential is maintained by the accumulation of potassium inside the cell and the removal of sodium from the cell by the energy-requiring Na+,K+-ATPase….

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Tetralogy of Fallot

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Tetralogy of Fallot

Tetralogy of Fallot is the most common cyanotic con genital in adults and may present to the physician before or, more commonly, after corrective or liative. The tetralogy has four components, which include right ventricular outflow obstruction secondary to pulmonic valve or infundibular stenosis, membranous VSD, overriding aorta across the VSD is usually large and…

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The Circulatory Pathway

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The Circulatory Pathway

Deoxygenated blood drains from peripheral tissues and enters the right atrium through the superior and inferior venae cavae. Blood draining from the heart itself enters the right atrium through the coronary sinus. This blood mixes in the right atrium during ventricular systole and then flows across the tricuspid valve and into the right ventricle during…

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Ventricular Septal Defect

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Ventricular Septal Defect

VSD is a common congenital abnormality in newborns and is present in approximately 1 in 500 normal births. However, this defect is rarely encountered in adults because nearly 50% of VSDs close spontaneously during childhood, and most large defects are surgically corrected at an early age. VSDs are classified according to their location within the…

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