Archive For The “News” Category

Adrenal Medullary Hyperfunction

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Adrenal Medullary Hyperfunction

The adrenal medulla symthesizes the catecholamines norepinephrine, epinephrine, and do from the amino acid tyrosine. Norepinephrine, the major catecholamine produced by the adrenal medulla, has predominantly a-agonist actions, causing vasoconstriction. Epinephrine acts primarily on the B receptors, having positive inotropic and chronotropic effects on the heart, causing peripheral vasodilation, and increasing plasma glucose concentrations in…

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TESTS OF SERUM THYROID HORMONE LEVELS

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TESTS OF SERUM THYROID HORMONE LEVELS

Total serum T4 and T3 measure the total amount of hormone bound to thyroid-binding proteins by radioimmunoassay. Total T4 and total Ta levels are elevated in Increase hyperthyroidism and low in hypothyroidism. Increase in TBG(as with pregnancy or estrogen therapy increases the total T4 and T3 measured in the absence of hyperthyroidism. Similarly, T and…

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Lung Cancer

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Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is a devastating malignant disease of adults. Although the rate of leveled, the mortality rate cancers has leveled, the mortality rate for lung cancer is the highest of all the cancers. Lung cancer is the most common malignant disease in the United States. More than 170,000 new cases of lung cancer and almost…

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Natural History, Prognosis, and Treatment Low-Grade NHLs

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Natural History,  Prognosis,  and Treatment Low-Grade NHLs

The common low-grade or indolent histologies include the follicular lymphomas(small cleaved cell and mixed cell types and small lymphocytic lymphoma(the latter is identical to CLL and is discussed later, which account for about 30% and 5% of all NHLs, respectively. The low-grade follicular lymphomas are mature clonal B-cell neoplasms with an immunophenotype that is positive…

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DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION

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DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR  COAGULATION

One of the most common and potentially life-threatening causes of nonimmune peripheral platelet destruction is DIC, DIC is associated with sepsis, malignancy, advanced liver disease, and other disorders that trigger endotoxin release or cause severe tissue damage. In DIC caused by bacterial sepsis, the extrinsic pathway is activated by circulating endotoxin that induces expression of…

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ANATOMY

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ANATOMY

Regional depots of body fat, as noted earlier, differ markedly in their metabolic features and in their relation to the adverse health consequences of obesity. The form of obesity that characteristically occurs in men, android or abdominal obesity, is closely associated with metabolic complications such as hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperuricemia, and dyslipoproteinemia(syndrom X). Mutation of…

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Obesity

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Obesity

A United States government task force has set a body mass index equal to or greater than 27.3 women and 27.8 for men as ning the term over weight. These values correspond to a 20% excess over body weight. Clinicians most frequently use body weight or, preferably, the BMI to judge whether a patient is…

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Biologic Therapy

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Biologic Therapy

Interferons, interleukin-2(IL 2), and monoclonal antibodies are examples of biologic therapies. Interferons have antiviral, and antiangiogenic effects. First used in the treatment of the rare hematologic malignancy hairy cell leukemia interferons are now used more often in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia(CML). Interferon reduces cellular proliferation and controls the leukocytosis in CML in approximately…

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Radiation Therapy

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Radiation Therapy

The goals of radiation therapy are to provide definitive treatment in which radiation is the sole curative local modality, to allow organ preservation after organ-sparing surgical resection, to decrease the likelihood of both local and regional recurrence after attempted surgical extirpation, and to provide palliation of symptoms from unresectable primary or metastatic tumor. Radiation therapy…

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PROSTATE CANCER Epidemiology and Natural History

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PROSTATE CANCER Epidemiology and Natural History

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men; in the United States, nearly 180,000 new cases are diagnosed and 37,000 deaths occur per year. Other than increasing age, no clear risk factors or habits are related to prostate cancer. The incidence of prostate cancer is highest in countries with a high consumption of dietary…

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