Archive For The “News” Category

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Patients with COPD have slowly progressive, irreversible airway obstruction. The course of the disease is punctuated by periodic exacerbations characterized increased dyspnea, increased sputum production, a change in character of the sputum, and occasionally respiratory failure. Exacerbations may result from bacterial respiratory infection, failure, poor compliance with prescribed therapy, or acute bronchospasm. Pulmonary emboli may…

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Alienation !

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Alienation !

For Marx, alienation is a condition occurring in pre-socialist societies where the human nature of man is made other than, alien to, what man is really capable of being. This is also the sense in which Rousseau used it, though his view was thal contemporary society had made man other, and more corrupt, than had…

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Clinical Presentation, Evaluation and Staging

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Clinical Presentation,  Evaluation and Staging

As described in the preceding section, the majority of patients with NHL present with painless lymphadenopathy involving one or more of the peripheral nodal Additionally, NHL can involve extranodal sites, and thu patients can present with a variety of symptoms reflective of the site of involvement. The most common sites of extranodal disease are the…

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cells of the immune system

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cells of the immune system

Lymphocyte Development, Function, and Localization B CELLS: B cells are characterized by the presence of cell surface(or antibody). Their major function is to mount a humoral immune response to antigens by producing antigen-specific antibody. B develop in the bone marrow in a series of highly coordinated steps that involve sequential rearrangement of the heavy and…

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Determinants of Peripheral Neutrophil Number

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Determinants of Peripheral Neutrophil Number

Most granulocyte precursors are in the bone marrow where maturation occurs over 6 to 10 days. Marrow precursors represent 20%, and the storage pool represent 75%, of the granulocyte mass. Therefore, peripheral neutrophils comprise only 5% of the total te mass. Furthermore, neutrophils circulate in transit between the marrow and peripheral tissues. Of circulating neutrophils,…

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EOSINOPHILS and BASOPHILS

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EOSINOPHILS and BASOPHILS

Eosinophils and basophils arise from myeloid precursors in the bone marrow. They transit rapidly from the marrow to the blood into the peripheral tissues, where they play a role in allergic and inflammatory reactions. Like neutrophils, they have characteristic secondary granules that give them their characteristic appearance and that are also functionally important. Both cell…

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Sickle Cell Disease

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Sickle Cell Disease

SCD is the most common of the sickle syndromes arises from a point mutation that results in a glutamic acid to valine substitution in the sixth amino acid of the B globin gene. It has arisen as an independent mutation in diverse populations in Africa, India, the Mediterranean, and the Middle East. The substitution of…

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Differential Diagnosis

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Differential Diagnosis

The differential diagnosis of normocytic hypoproductive anemia is long. Most nutritional anemias that classically cause or macrocytosis begin as normocytic anemia. Combined nutritional deficiencies may also cause normalization of the MCV. The measurement of EPO levels may be helpful in the diagnosis of normocytic anemia. In addition to helping in the diagnosis of anemia resulting…

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The Acute Abdomen

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The Acute Abdomen

The acute abdomen is a challenging condition in medical practice. The first question to be answered is quick evaluation is necessary in order not to delay intervention in patients who need it. It is preferable to obtain early surgical consultation even in doubtful cases rather than waiting for confirmation of the diagnosis by laboratory or…

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Stem Cell Theory of Hematopoiesis

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Stem Cell Theory of Hematopoiesis

All mature hematopoietic cells are hypothesized to derive from a small population of pluripotent stem cells Composing less than i% of all cells in the bone marrow, these cells bear no distinctive morphologic markings and are best defined by their unique functional properties. Stem cells have two distinctive characteristics. First, they are highly resilient and…

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