Archive For The “Medical” Category

IMMUNE THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA

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IMMUNE THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA

In children, acute immune thrombocytopenic purpura(ITP) is often preceded by a viral infection, such as varicella. Patients with ITP present with petechial hemorrhage, mucosal bleeding, and thrombocytopenia with counts often lower than 20,000/AL. The peripheral blood smear shows large platelets and no other abnormal cells(such as blasts, which would accompany childhood leukemia); the bone marrow…

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THROMBOCYTOPENIA CAUSED BY SEQUESTRATION

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THROMBOCYTOPENIA CAUSED BY SEQUESTRATION

Up to 30% of circulating platelets are normally contained within the any given time. Conditions that lead to splenomegaly cause increased trapping of in platelets; this platelet sequestration causes thrombocytopenia, often dropping the platelet count into the range of 50,000 to 100,000/uL, but rarely lower. Thrombocytopenia from sequestration is common in advanced liver disease, myeloproliferative…

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THROMBOCYTOPENIA CAUSED BY DECREASED MARROW PRODUCTION

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THROMBOCYTOPENIA CAUSED BY DECREASED MARROW PRODUCTION

Decreased production of platelets in the bone marrow is characterized by decreased or absent megakaryocytes on the bone marrow aspirate and biopsy. Suppression of normal megakaryocytopoiesis occurs in the following situations: (1) marrow damage and destruction of stem cells, as seen with cytotoxic chemotherapy; (2) destruction of the normal marrow microenvironment and replacement of normal…

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Vascular Causes of Bleeding

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Vascular Causes of Bleeding

Vascular purpura(bruising) is defined as bleeding as bleeding caused by intrinsic structural abnormalities of blood vessels or by inflammatory infiltration of blood vessels(vasculitis). Although vascular purpura usually causes bleeding in the setting of normal platelet counts and normal coagulation studies, vasculitis and vessel damage may be severe enough to cause secondary consumption of platelets and…

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THE LYMPHOID SYSTEM

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THE LYMPHOID SYSTEM

Lymphocytes localize to the peripheral lymphoid tissue which is the site of antigen/lymphocyte interaction and lymphocyte activation. The peripheral lymphoid tissue is composed of lymph node the spleen, and mucosal lymphoid tissue. Lymphocytes circulate continuously through these tissues through the vascular and lymphatic systems. The lymph nodes are highly organized lymphoid tissues that are sites…

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Gilbert’s Syndrome

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Gilbert’s Syndrome

This common disorder affects up to 7% of the population, with a marked male predominance. It commonly manifests during the teens or 20s as mild unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, exacerbated by fasting, and noted clinically as an incidental laboratory finding. The genetic defect involves a mutation in the promoter region of the transferase gene, and its clinical…

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Acute Leukemias

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Acute Leukemias

The acute leukemias are clonal hematopoietic malignant diseases that arise from the malignant transformation of Ma an early hematopoietic stem cell, Leukemias occur in 8 to 10 in 100,000 people(in comparison with 42 in 100,000 for prostate cancer and 62 in 100,000 for breast cancer). Acute leukemias are classified by cell lineage into acute myelogenous…

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HEART DISEASE ARISING DURING PREGNANCY

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HEART DISEASE ARISING DURING PREGNANCY

Cardiovascular disease can develop during pregnancy and may pose a significant risk to the mother and/or fetus. Hypertension is not an uncommon problem during pregnancy and is defined as a consistent increase in blood pressure of 30/15 mm Hg or as an absolute level greater than 140/90 mm Hg. The three major forms of hypertension…

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STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION

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STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION

Allogeneic transplantation offers the only hope for long- term cure in many patients with de novo AML and relapsed ALL. overall cure rates with chemotherapy alone in patients with AML are 15% to 30%. For patients less than 60 years old, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation offers an overall long-term cure rate of 40% to 60%,…

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Thalassemia

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Thalassemia

The thalassemic syndromes are a heterogeneous group of disorders associated with decreased or absent synthesis of either a or B globin chains. Severe thalassemic be syndromes are associated with severe hemolytic anemia and are diagnosed early childhood. However, mild thalassemia minor frequently cause mild microcytic anemia with little or no evidence of hemolysis. These syndromes…

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