Archive For The “Medical” Category

Gilbert’s Syndrome

By |

This common disorder affects up to 7% of the population, with a marked male predominance. It commonly manifests during the teens or 20s as mild unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, exacerbated by fasting, and noted clinically as an incidental laboratory finding. The genetic defect involves a mutation in the promoter region of the transferase gene, and its clinical…

Read more »

Chronic Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

By |

Chronic Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

This condition may manifest as self-limited, recurrent episodes of melena or hematochezia, usually not with the degree of hemodynamic compromise discussed earlier. Patients may also have no overt evidence of blood loss, but rather may have persistent anemia and stools consistently positive for occult blood. The evaluation of this condition differs from that of acute…

Read more »

SCREENING TESTS OF HEPATOBILIARY DISEASE

By |

SCREENING TESTS OF HEPATOBILIARY DISEASE

Screening tests of hepatobiliary disease may be divided into two categories: (1) tests of biliary obstruction and/or cholestasis and(2) tests of hepatocellular damage, based on the mechanisms responsible for the abnormal test. However, none of the tests is specific either category, and it is the overall pattern and the relative magnitude of abnormalities in these…

Read more »

CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

By |

CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

The most common signs and symptoms of chronic pancreatitis are abdominal pain, weight loss, diabetes, and steatorrhea. Other manifestations include obstructive jaundice secondary to compression of the distal common bile duct as it progresses through the scarred and fibrotic pancreatic head, chronic pseudocysts, pancreatic ascites, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Gastrointestinal bleeding is usually secondary to gastric…

Read more »

TREATMENT AND PROGNOSIS

By |

TREATMENT AND PROGNOSIS

The treatment of acute pancreatitis is supportive, with intravenous fluids, intake of nothing by mouth, relief of in pain with analgesics, nutritional support, and close clinical observation. In general, the mortality rate of acute pancreatitis is approximately 10%. An estimated 90% of patients recover within the first 2 weeks. Prognosis can be determined at the…

Read more »

CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

By |

CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

Classic symptoms of acute pancreatitis include acute abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Physical examination may reveal reduced bowel sounds secondary to ileus, jaundice resulting from gallstones abdominal tenderness, fever, or tachycardia. Acute in to the results in leakage of pancreatic enzymes into the blood stream. This condition is detected as an increase in serum amylase…

Read more »

STUDIES OF PANCREATIC STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

By |

STUDIES OF PANCREATIC STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

Invasive and noninvasive techniques have been developed to study pancreatic physiology, parenchyma, and duct morphology. These methods are often needed in evaluating patients with pancreatic disease. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography(ERCP) and endoscopic ultrasonography are invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that allow the study of pancreatic duct and duct morphology. The major limitation of ERCP is the…

Read more »

PANCREATIC ACINUS

By |

PANCREATIC ACINUS

The functional unit of the pancreas is the pancreatic acinus. It is composed of both acinar and ductal epithelial cells. The acinar cells have a rich and highly specialized intracellular matrix for the synthesis, storage, and secretion of large amounts of proteins, mainly in the form of precursor digestive enzymes. Enzymes secreted in an active…

Read more »

ANTIINFLAMMATORY MEDICATIONS

By |

ANTIINFLAMMATORY MEDICATIONS

These groups are the 5-aminosalicylic acid compounds(5-ASA), not to be confused with acetylsalicylic acid(aspirin) or with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids. 5-ASA medications need to contact the diseased mucosa because the effect is topical, not systemic. For this reason, different delivery systems exist. The purpose of such delivery systems is to release the agent at…

Read more »

Other Complications

By |

Other Complications

Patients with Crohn’s disease can develop multiple metabolic abnormalities. They have increased absorption of oxalate that leads to kidney stones and a disrupted enterohepatic circulation with increased frequency of gallstones. Metabolic bone disease is a complication of IBD, either because of vitamin D malabsorption or as a side effect of steroid use. Other rare include…

Read more »