Archive For The “Funny” Category

CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

By |

CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

Classic symptoms of acute pancreatitis include acute abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Physical examination may reveal reduced bowel sounds secondary to ileus, jaundice resulting from gallstones abdominal tenderness, fever, or tachycardia. Acute in to the results in leakage of pancreatic enzymes into the blood stream. This condition is detected as an increase in serum amylase…

Read more »

Bleeding Peptic Ulcers

By |

Bleeding Peptic Ulcers

Peptic ulcer disease is the most common cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, which occurs in 15% to 20% of patients.Although bleeding ceases spontaneously in 80%, the mortality of bleeding ulcers is 6% to 7%. The major risk factor for bleeding ulcers is consumption of NSAIDs. Patients with bleeding ulcers present with hematemesis, melena, or hematochezia,…

Read more »

Treatment of H. pylori Infection

By |

Treatment of H.  pylori Infection

Eradication of H. pylori accelerates the rate of duodenal and gastric ulcer healing to approximate that of omeprazole at 4 weeks. Eradication of H. pylori essentially cures both duodenal and gastric ulcers and should be attempted in all patients with current or past documented peptic ulcer disease and evidence of infection. However, treatment of H….

Read more »

CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE

By |

CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE

chronic renal failure is defined as progressive and irreversible loss of renal function. The most common causes ultimately leading to end-stage renal disease(ESRD) are listed. Loss of 75% of glomerular filtration rate(GFR) does not usually result in pronounced symptoms because the remaining glomeruli hyperfiltration, and the tubules adjust by maintaining adequate acid-base, fluid and electrolyte…

Read more »

Clinical Presentation Complications

By |

Clinical Presentation Complications

ARF results in signs and symptoms that reflect loss of the regulatory, excretory, and endocrine functions of the kidney. The loss of excretory ability of the kidney is ressed by a rise in the plasma of specific substances normally excreted by the kidney. The most widely monitored indices are the concentrations of BUN and creatinine…

Read more »

LABORATORY EVALUATION

By |

LABORATORY EVALUATION

In hospitalized adults in whom the diagnoses of prerenal and postrenal azotemia have been excluded, ARF is usually caused by ATN. By contrast, in an outpatient setting in which prerenal and postrenal causes have been excluded, ARF is more often caused by other renal parenchymal diseases. Examination of the urine for blood and protein and…

Read more »

Renal Arterial occlusion

By |

Renal Arterial occlusion

Partial renal artery occlusion may be caused by arteriosclerotic disease or fibromuscular which may lead to hypertension or ischemic nephropathy as a result of progressive atherosclerotic arterial stenosis. Renal artery occlusion may also occur as a result of thrombotic or embolic phenomena. Thrombosis may result from blunt trauma or dissection of the renalartery or may…

Read more »

RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

By |

RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

Renal cell carcinoma is the most frequent malignant neoplasm and accounts for about 2% of all cancer deaths in both sexes. It has an increased predilection for men, with a male-to-female ratio of about 2:1. The incidence of this malignancy peaks between the ages of 50 and 70 years. The term hypernephroma originated from the…

Read more »

Diabetic Nephropathy

By |

Diabetic Nephropathy

Diabetic nephropathy is the single most important cause of end-stage renal disease in the United States, with diabetic patients accounting for approximately 40% all patients enrolled in the renal disease program. The cumulative incidence of is 30% to 50% in type 1 diabetes and about 20% in type 2 diabetes, although certain populations of patients…

Read more »

Focal Glomerulosclerosis

By |

Focal Glomerulosclerosis

FGS accounts for 10% to 15% of children and 15% to 20% of adults with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome . Although heavy and edema are usually present at onset, some patients have asymptomatic proteinuria and azotemia, and microscopic hematuria are commonly found at the time of diagnosis. Serum complement levels are normal. Recently, a glomerular permeability…

Read more »