Archive For The “Celebrities” Category

SCREENING TESTS OF HEPATOBILIARY DISEASE

By |

SCREENING TESTS OF HEPATOBILIARY DISEASE

Screening tests of hepatobiliary disease may be divided into two categories: (1) tests of biliary obstruction and/or cholestasis and(2) tests of hepatocellular damage, based on the mechanisms responsible for the abnormal test. However, none of the tests is specific either category, and it is the overall pattern and the relative magnitude of abnormalities in these…

Read more »

CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

By |

CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

The most common signs and symptoms of chronic pancreatitis are abdominal pain, weight loss, diabetes, and steatorrhea. Other manifestations include obstructive jaundice secondary to compression of the distal common bile duct as it progresses through the scarred and fibrotic pancreatic head, chronic pseudocysts, pancreatic ascites, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Gastrointestinal bleeding is usually secondary to gastric…

Read more »

PANCREATIC ACINUS

By |

PANCREATIC ACINUS

The functional unit of the pancreas is the pancreatic acinus. It is composed of both acinar and ductal epithelial cells. The acinar cells have a rich and highly specialized intracellular matrix for the synthesis, storage, and secretion of large amounts of proteins, mainly in the form of precursor digestive enzymes. Enzymes secreted in an active…

Read more »

Extraintestinal Manifestations

By |

Extraintestinal Manifestations

IBD is a systemic disease that affects primarily the gastrointestinal system and has numerous extraintestinal manifestations, including musculoskeletal, skin, hepatic, renal, and other features. The most frequent musculoskeletal complication is seronegative”arthritis.” This pauciarticular, asymmetric, nondeforming arthritis involves large joints more commonly. It occurs in 15% to 45% of patients with colonic disease, either Crohn’s disease…

Read more »

Delayed Gastric Emptying

By |

Delayed Gastric Emptying

Typical symptoms of delayed gastric emptying include early satiety, bloating, epigastric fullness, nausea, and vomiting. Symptoms are worsened by eating, which may lead to anorexia, weight loss, and nutritional deficiencies. A wide range of clinical disorders are associated with impaired gastric emptying. Diabetic gastroparesis is the most important of these disorders. It is typically seen…

Read more »

Initial Treatment of Peptic Ulcer Disease

By |

Initial Treatment of Peptic Ulcer Disease

A number of excellent treatment options are available for the of peptic ulcers. Antacids are effective agents for healing ulcers and controlling symptoms. However, from a practical perspective, the inconvenient dosing frequency and adverse effects of therapy limit the use of to symptom control only. Antacids neutralize acid that is already secreted. This increases intragastric…

Read more »

Chronic Abdominal Pain

By |

Chronic Abdominal Pain

Chronic abdominal pain does not impose the urgency that acute abdominal pain does. However, the challenge for the physician is to differentiate organic pain resulting from a specific pathologic process from functional from a specific pain. The location and characteristics of already discussed, serve as important guides, as do other accompanying symptoms. The presence of…

Read more »

Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis

By |

Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis

Rapidly progressive(RPGN) is a syndrome characterized by nephronal hematuria(red blood cell casts and/or dysmorphic red blood cells) with renal failure developing over weeks to months and diffuse glomerular crescent formation evident on renal biopsy. Classification is complicated by the fact that RPGN can occur with immune deposits(either anti-GBM or immune complex type) or without immune…

Read more »

Treatment of Non-ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

By |

Treatment of Non-ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Patients with a non-Q wave myocardial infarction in general do not have total occlusion of the infarct-related coronary artery. Thrombolytic therapy has not been shown to be of benefit in these patients and in several studies has been associated with a higher mortality. Medical management is otherwise similar to that with Q wave infarctions and…

Read more »

Aortic Stenosis

By |

Aortic Stenosis

Aortic stenosis can be congenital or acquired in origin. The most common congenital abnormality is the bicuspid aortic valve, Significant narrowing of the orifice usually occurs during middle age after years of turbulent flow through the valve results in leaflet injury thickening, and calcification. Rheumatic aortic stenosis results from fusion of the leaflet commissures and…

Read more »