Archive For The “Celebrities” Category

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

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Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

B-cell CLL is malignant disorder of lymphocytes characterized by expansion and accumulation of small lymphocytes of B-cell origin. CLL is essentially identical to B-cell small lymphocytic lymphoma in the REAL and WF classifications. CLL is the most common form of in the States and affects twice as many men as women. Although it can occur…

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Approach to Diagnosis

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Approach to Diagnosis

The differential diagnosis of hepatic causes of jaundice applies to those patients with predominant conjugated. A history of darkened urine invariably implies conjugated hyperbilirubinemia and should prompt evaluation. A careful history and physical examination and judicious use of laboratory studies are of paramount importance in obtaining clues to the nature of jaundice and specifically in…

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Epidemiology and Natural History

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Epidemiology and Natural History

Gastric cancer rates are highest in poor countries that use smoked meats and meats high in nitrates. Other predisposing conditions include pernicious anemia, achlorhydria, gastric ulcers, and prior gastric surgery. Except for cancers of the gastroesophageal junction, gastric cancer rates have decreased in the United States. A recognized risk factor for gastric cancer is infection…

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Clinical Evaluation of Thrombosis

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The approach to patients with thromboembolism is defined by clinical history, physical findings, and laboratory studies. Events that trigger deep venous thrombosis(DVT) include immobilization, orthopedic and other surgical procedures, use of oral contraceptives, and pregnancy. Venous thrombosis that is recurrent(thrombophilia), presents at an early age, occurs in unusual sites(e.g., cerebral vessels), or is accompanied by…

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INHERITED FACTOR DEFICIENCIES OTHER THAN HEMOPHILIA

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INHERITED FACTOR DEFICIENCIES OTHER THAN HEMOPHILIA

Inherited bleeding disorders caused by deficiencies of coagulation factors V, VII, X, and XI are much rarer than hemophilia. Patients with factor d deficiency usually lack both plasma factor V and platelet factor v and have joint and muscle bleeding like patients with hemophilia. Some plasma V-deficient persons are asymptomatic until they are challenged with…

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THE LYMPHOID SYSTEM

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THE LYMPHOID SYSTEM

Lymphocytes localize to the peripheral lymphoid tissue which is the site of antigen/lymphocyte interaction and lymphocyte activation. The peripheral lymphoid tissue is composed of lymph node the spleen, and mucosal lymphoid tissue. Lymphocytes circulate continuously through these tissues through the vascular and lymphatic systems. The lymph nodes are highly organized lymphoid tissues that are sites…

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Coagulation Cascade

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Coagulation Cascade

The coagulation cascade is characterized by continuous factor activation and coordinated assembly of enzyme complexes, held in check by circulating inhibitors. These enzyme complexes consist of serine proteases, cofactors, and zymogen substrates assembled on a membrane(phospholipid) surface. Under normal circumstances, formation of these complexes is relatively slow, and information of these complexes by circulating inhibitors…

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PLASMA CELL DISORDERS

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PLASMA CELL DISORDERS

The plasma cell disorders or”dyscrasias” comprise a group of B-cell that are related to each other virtue of their production and secretion of monoclonal immunoglobulin(or part of an immunoglobulin molecule), or M protein. The tumor cell of these disorders exhibits features of a differentiated plasma cell that is adapted to synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin at…

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CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS AND ACUTE CHOLANGITIS

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CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS AND ACUTE CHOLANGITIS

In the United States, most gallstones in the common duct come from the gallbladder; this occurs in up to 15% of persons with cholelithiasis. Less common stones may form de novo in the biliary tree. Ductal stones may be asymptomatic(30% to 40%) or may produce biliary colic, jaundice, cholangitis, pancreatitis, or a combination of these….

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High-Grade NHL

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High-Grade NHL

The two high-grade subtypes Burkitt’s or small non-cleaved cell and lymphoblastic lymphoma, are quite rare in the adult population. Nonetheless, these subtypes are important because they are potentially curable with appropriate therapy and often require urgent, inpatient treatment at the time of diagnosis because of their highly aggressive nature, rapid growth, and tumor lysis on…

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