Archive For The “Celebrities” Category

THROMBOCYTOPENIA CAUSED BY DECREASED MARROW PRODUCTION

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THROMBOCYTOPENIA CAUSED BY DECREASED MARROW PRODUCTION

Decreased production of platelets in the bone marrow is characterized by decreased or absent megakaryocytes on the bone marrow aspirate and biopsy. Suppression of normal megakaryocytopoiesis occurs in the following situations: (1) marrow damage and destruction of stem cells, as seen with cytotoxic chemotherapy; (2) destruction of the normal marrow microenvironment and replacement of normal…

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THE LYMPHOID SYSTEM

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THE LYMPHOID SYSTEM

Lymphocytes localize to the peripheral lymphoid tissue which is the site of antigen/lymphocyte interaction and lymphocyte activation. The peripheral lymphoid tissue is composed of lymph node the spleen, and mucosal lymphoid tissue. Lymphocytes circulate continuously through these tissues through the vascular and lymphatic systems. The lymph nodes are highly organized lymphoid tissues that are sites…

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Gilbert’s Syndrome

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Gilbert’s Syndrome

This common disorder affects up to 7% of the population, with a marked male predominance. It commonly manifests during the teens or 20s as mild unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, exacerbated by fasting, and noted clinically as an incidental laboratory finding. The genetic defect involves a mutation in the promoter region of the transferase gene, and its clinical…

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Acute Leukemias

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Acute Leukemias

The acute leukemias are clonal hematopoietic malignant diseases that arise from the malignant transformation of Ma an early hematopoietic stem cell, Leukemias occur in 8 to 10 in 100,000 people(in comparison with 42 in 100,000 for prostate cancer and 62 in 100,000 for breast cancer). Acute leukemias are classified by cell lineage into acute myelogenous…

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Coagulation Cascade

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Coagulation Cascade

The coagulation cascade is characterized by continuous factor activation and coordinated assembly of enzyme complexes, held in check by circulating inhibitors. These enzyme complexes consist of serine proteases, cofactors, and zymogen substrates assembled on a membrane(phospholipid) surface. Under normal circumstances, formation of these complexes is relatively slow, and information of these complexes by circulating inhibitors…

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PLASMA CELL DISORDERS

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PLASMA CELL DISORDERS

The plasma cell disorders or”dyscrasias” comprise a group of B-cell that are related to each other virtue of their production and secretion of monoclonal immunoglobulin(or part of an immunoglobulin molecule), or M protein. The tumor cell of these disorders exhibits features of a differentiated plasma cell that is adapted to synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin at…

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Clinical Manifestations

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Clinical Manifestations

The development of megaloblastic anemia is usually gradual and allows adequate time for concomitant plasma expansion to prevent hypovolemia. Consequently, patients are frequently severely anemic at the time of presentation. They may have yellowish skin, resulting from a combination of pallor and jaundice. Some patients have glossitis and cheilosis. With severe anemia, patients usually have…

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CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS AND ACUTE CHOLANGITIS

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CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS AND ACUTE CHOLANGITIS

In the United States, most gallstones in the common duct come from the gallbladder; this occurs in up to 15% of persons with cholelithiasis. Less common stones may form de novo in the biliary tree. Ductal stones may be asymptomatic(30% to 40%) or may produce biliary colic, jaundice, cholangitis, pancreatitis, or a combination of these….

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High-Grade NHL

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High-Grade NHL

The two high-grade subtypes Burkitt’s or small non-cleaved cell and lymphoblastic lymphoma, are quite rare in the adult population. Nonetheless, these subtypes are important because they are potentially curable with appropriate therapy and often require urgent, inpatient treatment at the time of diagnosis because of their highly aggressive nature, rapid growth, and tumor lysis on…

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NEUTROPHILS

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NEUTROPHILS

Neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes) are the predominant white blood cell in the peripheral blood. They are morphologically recognizable by their characteristic segmented nucleus. They also contain various cytoplasmic granules that both give them a characteristic appearance and are also functionally important. Neutrophil killing of bacteria requires chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and intracellular killing. Chemotaxis is the ordered movement…

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