Archive For The “Amazing” Category

Other Complications

By |

Other Complications

Patients with Crohn’s disease can develop multiple metabolic abnormalities. They have increased absorption of oxalate that leads to kidney stones and a disrupted enterohepatic circulation with increased frequency of gallstones. Metabolic bone disease is a complication of IBD, either because of vitamin D malabsorption or as a side effect of steroid use. Other rare include…

Read more »

Adaptation to Nephron Loss

By |

Adaptation to Nephron Loss

To ensure adequate solute, water, and acid-base balance, the surviving nephrons in the diseased kidney must adjust by increasing their filtration and excretion rates. Without such adjustments, patients with chronic renal failure are vulnerable to edema formation and severe volume overload, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, and azotemia. Thus, during progressive renal disease, sodium balance is maintained by…

Read more »

Antiphospholipid Syndrome and the Kidney

By |

Antiphospholipid Syndrome and the Kidney

Patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome may develop venous or arterial thrombosis, and recurrent fetal loss. This disorder may be associated with systemic disorders such as systemic lupus erythemaatosus or other autoimmune diseases, certain infections, and drugs, or it may occur alone as a primary disease. It is associated with a false-positive result of a Venereal…

Read more »

Acute Respiratory Failure

By |

Acute Respiratory Failure

The two major functions of respiration are to add oxygen to and remove carbon dioxide from the blood. Acute respiratory failure is the relatively sudden decline in either or both of these functions. If an acute insult is of sufficient magnitude, acute respiratory failure may occur even though lung function before the insult was normal….

Read more »

Inhalation Noxious Gases and Fumes

By |

Inhalation Noxious Gases and Fumes

The inhalation of gases and fumes may cause hyxia and metabolic injury. Inhalation of concentrated gases normally found in the atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, or meth ane, causes replacement of alveolar but these gases are not toxic. Carbon monoxide(CO) poisoning is a common and frequently unsus pected cause of inhalational injury and results…

Read more »

SARCOIDOSIS

By |

SARCOIDOSIS

Sarcoidosis is a well-characterized systemic disease, the origin of which remains elusive despite years of intense research. It is characterized pathologically by noncaseating epithelioid granulomas that contain giant cells. As a systemic disease, it may affect any organ system, but it commonly affects the lungs and lymph nodes. Skin manifestations are common, and patients with…

Read more »

Pathophysiology and Clinical Manifestations

By |

Pathophysiology and Clinical Manifestations

The histologic features of ILD depend on the cause of the disease, and a definitive diagnosis can only be established by pathologic examination of lung tissue. ILDs are grouped by origin, when known, and by pathologic manifestations. Known causes include pneumoconiosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, certain drugs, and toxic gas inhalation. Other diseases with characteristic pathologic features…

Read more »

PERFUSION

By |

PERFUSION

The pulmonary vascular bed receives the entire cardiac from the right ventricle . The of blood flow is not uniform throughout the lung and is dependent on several factors. Because the pulmonary circulation is a low pressure system it is affected by gravity, with the greatest blood flow going to the dependent portions of the…

Read more »

CARDIAC TRANSPLANTATION

By |

CARDIAC TRANSPLANTATION

Over the last two decades, cardiac transplantation has become a life-saving treatment choice in patients with end-stage congestive heart failure. With advances in surgical techniques and immunosuppressive therapy 1- and 5-year survival rates are approximately 85% and 75%, respectively. This is far superior to the 1-year survival in patients with advanced heart failure, which can…

Read more »

PERICARDIAL CONSTRICTION

By |

PERICARDIAL CONSTRICTION

Constrictive pericarditis is a rare disorder that results from progressive scarring of the pericardium in to prior The most common causes include idiopathic pericarditis, chest radiation, cardiac surgery, and tuberculosis With classic constrictive pericarditis the scarring process circumferential, leading to restricted diastolic filling of all four cardiac chambers. As with cardiac tamponade, atrial and ventricular…

Read more »