Archive For The “Amazing” Category

Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome

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Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome

Minimal change nephrotic syndrome(MCNS) is also known as nil lesion or lipoid nephrosis; more than 85% to 90% of all children with nephrotic syndrome have this condition. It almost always presents as insidious or sudden onset of the nephrotic syndrome in children aged 2 to 8 years with a ratio of 2:1. In adults, accounts…

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Plasma Lipoprotein Physiology

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Plasma Lipoprotein Physiology

The major properties of the plasma lipoproteins a summarized . Normal men women consume 80 to 120 g of fat(triglyceride[TG]) daily. Dietary fat is hydrolyzed by pancreatic lipase, absorbed by the intestinal mucosal cells, and secreted into the mesenteric lymphatics as chylomicrons. One hundred grams of dietary fat mixed in an adult plasma volume of…

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HEART DISEASE ARISING DURING PREGNANCY

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HEART DISEASE ARISING DURING PREGNANCY

Cardiovascular disease can develop during pregnancy and may pose a significant risk to the mother and/or fetus. Hypertension is not an uncommon problem during pregnancy and is defined as a consistent increase in blood pressure of 30/15 mm Hg or as an absolute level greater than 140/90 mm Hg. The three major forms of hypertension…

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Thalassemia

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Thalassemia

The thalassemic syndromes are a heterogeneous group of disorders associated with decreased or absent synthesis of either a or B globin chains. Severe thalassemic be syndromes are associated with severe hemolytic anemia and are diagnosed early childhood. However, mild thalassemia minor frequently cause mild microcytic anemia with little or no evidence of hemolysis. These syndromes…

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Waldenstrom’s Macroglobulinemia

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Waldenstrom’s Macroglobulinemia

Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia is a malignancy of plasmacytoid lymphocytes that secrete large quantities of IgM. It is a chronic disorder affecting elderly patients(median age is 64) that shares features of the lymphomas and myeloma. In contrast to Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia is associated with lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly, and although bone marrow involvement is invariably present, lytic lesions and…

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TREATMENT

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TREATMENT

Advances in treatment of CML have prolonged survival. Identification of the Philadelphia chromosome has allowed for easier diagnosis and monitoring of disease. Exquisitely sensitive PCR procedures allow for detection of up to a single bcr-abl-positive cell in 10 to 106 peripheral cells. Responses to treatment regimes in CML are now described, to distinguish among hematologic(return…

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NEUTROPHILS

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NEUTROPHILS

Neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes) are the predominant white blood cell in the peripheral blood. They are morphologically recognizable by their characteristic segmented nucleus. They also contain various cytoplasmic granules that both give them a characteristic appearance and are also functionally important. Neutrophil killing of bacteria requires chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and intracellular killing. Chemotaxis is the ordered movement…

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Immunoglobulin M-Mediated(Cold) Hemolytic Anemia

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Immunoglobulin M-Mediated(Cold)  Hemolytic Anemia

Cold-type immune hemolysis is usually postinfectious. The most common associated illnesses are pneumoniae and Epstein-Barr virus. IgM antibodies are produced that are directed against the RBC antigen I Mycoplasma) or i(Epstein-Barr virus). The antibodies bind at lower temperatures, usually in the distal circulation, and bind complement. During the return to the central circulation, the IgM…

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Etiology

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Etiology

The immune system has separate compartments, including the systemic compartment, represented by the peripheral blood lymphocytes, and the gastrointestinal mucosa, in which numerous intraepithelial lymphocytes and lamina propria lymphocytes are found. Patients with IBD have an abnormality in the expression and activation in the gastrointestinal mucosal compartment. The gastrointestinal system is normally in a”controlled state…

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Identification of the Bleeding

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Identification of the Bleeding

Source In the majority of cases, acute GI hemorrhage resolves spontaneously. Nevertheless, it is prudent to localize the bleeding source, because proper identification allows direct treatment in cases in which bleeding does not spontaneously resolve and allows for identification of the patient at risk for further bleeding. For example, patient with a bleeding duodenal ulcer,…

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