Aside from the island-bound financial center of Greater London, Europe’s major economic engines do not rely on old borders to define themselves. The Euro-Lowlands cuts across four nations: the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, and France.
The Euro- Sunbelt stretches from Barcelona to Marseille, attracting people and firms with competitive costs and the Mediterranean lifestyle. Japan is less a country than a network of linked Mega-regions, anchored by Greater Tokyo: indeed, a close look at the light-emissions map shows that its three major Megas may well be blurring into one super-Mega of more than Too million people.
While Mega-regions power advanced economies, they literally define them nations. If you removed its Megas, China would be virtually meaningless as an economic category. What matters are Shang-King(Shanghai to Nanjing, with more than 50 million people; Hong-Zen (Hong Kong to’s Shenzhen), 40 million; Greater Beijing, 36 million. million. These three Megas account for most of Chinese economic output, attract most of its talent, and generate the great majority of its innovations.
Instead of technology helping to spread economic opportunity and lift many more boats , economic power is concentrating in a small number of key regions.