A reasoning gap activity requires that students derive some new information by inferring it from information they have already been given For example, students might be given a railroad schedule and asked to work out the best route to get from one particular city to another, or they might be asked to solve a riddle. In the lesson we observed, students were asked to use the results of their surveys or interviews to find out which were the three most popular and the least popular subjects. Prabhu(1587) feels that reasoning-gap tasks work best since information-gap tasks require a single step transfer of information. rather than often be rather open-ended tasks tend to sustained negotiation, and opinion-gap sustained Reasoning gap other hand, encourage a more a some engagement tasks, on the characterized by with meaning, though they are still what predictable use of language. focused: According to Elis(2009), TBLT tasks can be unfocused or focused: Tasks learners with opportunities Unfocused tasks are tasks designed to provide to for communicating generally. The task described in the introduction to this chapter, where students have to plan an itinerary for a train trip, is an example. Students draw on their own language resources to fulfill the task.
Process Writing :
Traditionally, when teachers teach writing, they assign topics for student to write on: perhaps they do a bit of brainstorming about the pre-writing phase, and then have students write about the topic without interruption. Subsequently, teachers collect and evaluate what students have written. Such instruction is very product-oriented there is no involvement of the teacher in the act or process of writing la process writing, on the other hand, students may initially brainstorm ideas about a topic and begin writing, but then they have repeated conferences the teacher and the other students, during which they receive feedback on their writing up to that point, make revisions based on the feedback they receive, and carry on writing. In this way students learn to view ther writing as someone else’s reading and to improve both the expression of meaning and the form of their writing as they draft and redraft. Process writing shifts the in teaching writing from evaluation to revision.