• 26 Feb 2017

    IMMUNE THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA

    In children, acute immune thrombocytopenic purpura(ITP) is often preceded by a viral infection, such as varicella. Patients with ITP present with petechial hemorrhage, mucosal bleeding, and ...

  • 25 Feb 2017

    THROMBOCYTOPENIA CAUSED BY SEQUESTRATION

    Up to 30% of circulating platelets are normally contained within the any given time. Conditions that lead to splenomegaly cause increased trapping of in platelets; this platelet sequestration ...

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  • In children, acute immune thrombocytopenic purpura(ITP) is often preceded by a viral infection, such as varicella. Patients with ITP present with petechial hemorrhage, mucosal bleeding, and thrombocytopenia with counts often lower than 20,000/AL. The peripheral blood smear shows large platelets and no other abnormal cells(such as blasts, which would accompany childhood leukemia); the bone marrow...

  • Up to 30% of circulating platelets are normally contained within the any given time. Conditions that lead to splenomegaly cause increased trapping of in platelets; this platelet sequestration causes thrombocytopenia, often dropping the platelet count into the range of 50,000 to 100,000/uL, but rarely lower. Thrombocytopenia from sequestration is common in advanced liver disease, myeloproliferative...

  • Decreased production of platelets in the bone marrow is characterized by decreased or absent megakaryocytes on the bone marrow aspirate and biopsy. Suppression of normal megakaryocytopoiesis occurs in the following situations: (1) marrow damage and destruction of stem cells, as seen with cytotoxic chemotherapy; (2) destruction of the normal marrow microenvironment and replacement of normal...

  • Vascular purpura(bruising) is defined as bleeding as bleeding caused by intrinsic structural abnormalities of blood vessels or by inflammatory infiltration of blood vessels(vasculitis). Although vascular purpura usually causes bleeding in the setting of normal platelet counts and normal coagulation studies, vasculitis and vessel damage may be severe enough to cause secondary consumption of platelets and...

  • Lymphocytes localize to the peripheral lymphoid tissue which is the site of antigen/lymphocyte interaction and lymphocyte activation. The peripheral lymphoid tissue is composed of lymph node the spleen, and mucosal lymphoid tissue. Lymphocytes circulate continuously through these tissues through the vascular and lymphatic systems. The lymph nodes are highly organized lymphoid tissues that are sites...